What Command Is Used To Manage A Software Raid Configuration After Installation? (Perfect answer)

How do I configure software RAID in Windows 10?

  • Select Configure software RAID on the “Partition disks” page. A new screen will pop up asking if you are sure you want to write changes to your storage devices and configure RAID. Select to continue. After the partitions are done formatting, select Create MD device. The first RAID we are going to configure is RAID 1 for our swap space.


What command is used to manage a software RAID configuration?

The utility that we will be using to manage and setup software RAID is mdadm. This command allows you to create software RAID and also help manage your RAID setup. Figure 4.1 shows the command used to create our software RAID1.

Which of the following commands can be used to manage dynamic devices on Linux?

Which of the following commands can be used to manage dynamic devices on Linux? The command lsusb will list all usb devices detected by Linux. The /etc/fstab contains static information that can be used to mount devices to the Linux filesystem during the boot process.

Which of the following is a type of software that allows a piece of hardware to host multiple operating systems?

Virtualization software — programs that allow you to run multiple operating systems simultaneously on a single computer — allows you to do just that. Using virtualization software, you can run multiple operating systems on one physical machine.

Which of the following commands can be used to display the amount of free and used memory in the system?

Linux comes with different set of commands to check memory usage. The free command displays the total amount of free and used physical and swap memory in the system, as well as the buffers used by the kernel. The vmstat command reports information about processes, memory, paging, block IO, traps, and cpu activity.

What is Mdadm command?

mdadm is a Linux utility used to manage and monitor software RAID devices. It is used in modern Linux distributions in place of older software RAID utilities such as raidtools2 or raidtools.

What is software RAID in Linux?

Linux Software RAID (often called mdraid or MD/RAID) makes the use of RAID possible without a hardware RAID controller. For this purpose, the storage media used for this (hard disks, SSDs and so forth) are simply connected to the computer as individual drives, somewhat like the direct SATA ports on the motherboard.

What is PIPE command in Linux?

The Pipe is a command in Linux that lets you use two or more commands such that output of one command serves as input to the next. In short, the output of each process directly as input to the next one like a pipeline. Pipes help you mash-up two or more commands at the same time and run them consecutively.

What is Linux command?

The Linux command is a utility of the Linux operating system. All basic and advanced tasks can be done by executing commands. The commands are executed on the Linux terminal. The terminal is a command-line interface to interact with the system, which is similar to the command prompt in the Windows OS.

What is CD command in Ubuntu?

cd: The cd command will allow you to change directories. When you open a terminal you will be in your home directory. To navigate into the root directory, use “cd /” To navigate to your home directory, use “cd” or “cd ~” To navigate up one directory level, use “cd..”

What controls the application software and manages how the hardware devices work together?

System software includes both operating system software and utility software. controls the application software and manages how the hardware devices work together. provide the user with the option of choosing the operating system when the computer is turned on.

How do you virtualize an OS?

This is done by shifting services on the separate host in two containers which are on the server. In operating system virtualization, the OS may hide the resources so that when the computer program reads it they do not appear in the enumeration results.

How do VMs work?

How do virtual machines work? Virtual machines are made possible through virtualization technology. Virtualization uses software to simulate virtual hardware that allows multiple VMs to run on a single machine. VMs only work if there is a hypervisor to virtualize and distribute host resources.

What does du command do in Linux?

The du command is a standard Linux/Unix command that allows a user to gain disk usage information quickly. It is best applied to specific directories and allows many variations for customizing the output to meet your needs.

Which command displays the amount of memory present on the system?

Entering cat /proc/meminfo in your terminal opens the /proc/meminfo file. This is a virtual file that reports the amount of available and used memory. It contains real-time information about the system’s memory usage as well as the buffers and shared memory used by the kernel.

Which command displays the amount of free disk space?

Use the df command to show the amount of free disk space on each mounted disk.

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15 SP1: Chapter 7. Software RAID Configuration (Storage Administration Guide)

This document applies to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server15 Service Pack 1. RAID (redundant array of independent disks) is a technology that combines numerous hard disk partitions into a single huge virtual hard drive in order to improve performance, data security, or both at the same time. The SCSI protocol is used by the majority of RAID controllers because it can address a greater number of hard drives in a more efficient manner than the IDE protocol and is better suited for parallel processing of commands than the IDE protocol.

Software RAID offers all of the benefits of RAID systems without the added expense of hardware RAID controllers, making it a more affordable option.

Important: RAID on Cluster File Systems

It is necessary to configure software RAID beneath clustered file systems utilizing a cluster multi-device configuration (Cluster MD). For more information about High Availability Extension, please see the Administration Guide. Using SUSE Linux Enterprise, you may create a soft RAID system by integrating numerous hard drives into a single unit. RAID refers to a number of distinct systems for joining many hard drives into a RAID system, each with its own set of aims, benefits, and features, and each with its own set of characteristics.

  • This section discusses the RAID levels 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and nested RAID levels that are often used.
  • Actually, this is not a RAID system because it does not provide data backup, but the term “RAID 0” has become widely used to refer to this sort of system due to its popularity.
  • If even one hard drive fails, the RAID system is destroyed and your data is gone, despite the fact that the performance is quite excellent.
  • Hard drive mirroring is the technical term for this.
  • All drives, with the exception of one, might be damaged without compromising your data.

Writing performance is slightly reduced during the copying process when compared to when using single disk access (10 to 20% slower), but read access is significantly faster when compared to any one of the normal physical hard disks because the data has been duplicated and can be scanned in parallel, resulting in significantly faster access.

  • These aren’t your standard RAID configurations, though.
  • Level 3 enables byte-level striping with a separate parity disk, but it is not capable of serving multiple requests at the same time.
  • Level 4 offers block-level striping, similar to Level 0, but with the addition of a dedicated parity disk.
  • The parity disk, on the other hand, may cause a bottleneck when it comes to write access.
  • In terms of performance and redundancy, RAID 5 is an optimum compromise between Level 0 and Level 1 configurations.
  • As is the case with RAID 0, the data is dispersed among the hard drives.
  • These blocks are connected together using the XOR function, which allows the contents of one block to be rebuilt by the other block in the event of a system failure.
  • The failure of any one hard disk necessitates its replacement as soon as feasible in order to reduce the danger of data loss.
  • In the event that two of the hard drives fail during the data recovery procedure, the system will continue to function normally and no data would be lost.
  • It can deal with the loss of any two devices without affecting the data.
  • It is necessary to have a minimum of four devices.

When using the twin disk failure mode, it is extremely sluggish. For write operations, a RAID 6 configuration necessitates a significant amount of CPU time and memory.

Table 7.1:Comparison of RAID 5 and RAID 6
Feature RAID 5 RAID 6
Number of devices N+1, minimum of 3 N+2, minimum of 4
Parity Distributed, single Distributed, dual
Performance Medium impact on write and rebuild More impact on sequential write than RAID 5
Fault-tolerance Failure of one component device Failure of two component devices

RAIDn, RAID 10, RAID 0+1, RAID 30, and RAID 50 are some of the other RAID levels that have been created throughout the years. Some of them are proprietary implementations developed by hardware manufacturers. Examples of RAID 10 setups may be found in Chapter 9, Creating Software RAID 10 Devices, which is a self-contained chapter. This setup may be accessed with the YaST Expert Partitioner, which is a soft RAID configuration. This partitioning tool also allows you to change and delete existing partitions, as well as create new ones that should be utilized with soft RAID, all in one convenient location.

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The procedure for configuring RAID 10 configurations is covered in Chapter 9, Creating Software RAID 10 Devices.

  1. YaST should be launched and the file should be opened. Create any additional partitions that will be required for your RAID arrangement if necessary. Do not format them, and instead select the appropriate partition type. When utilizing existing partitions, it is not essential to modify the partition type of such partitions because YaST will do it for you. More information may be found in Section 10.1, “Using the Expert Partitioner.” In order to reduce the danger of data loss if one of the hard drives fails (as in RAID 1 and 5) and to improve the speed of RAID 0, it is strongly suggested to employ partitions stored on multiple hard disks. RAID 0 requires at least two partitions to function properly. When it comes to RAID 1, you’ll need exactly two partitions, however you’ll need at least three partitions when it comes to RAID 5. A minimum of four partitions are required for a RAID 6 configuration. It is advisable to utilize only divisions that are the same size as one another since each segment can only provide the same amount of space as the partition with the smallest size. Choose from the drop-down menu on the left. In the right panel, a list of all currently active RAID setups is displayed
  2. On the RAID page’s lower left-hand side, click on
  3. Choose the proper number of divisions from the drop-down menu in the dialog box. Optionally, you may provide a name to your RAID. It will be accessible as /dev/md/NAME when it has been created. More information may be found in Section 7.2.1, “RAID Names”
Figure 7.1:Example RAID 5 Configuration
  1. Continue by selecting the and, if appropriate, the. The ideal chunk size varies depending on the kind of data and the type of RAID being used in the system. More information may be found by clicking here. More information on parity algorithms may be discovered by searching for the -layoutoption in the man 8 mdadm documentation. If you’re not sure, go with the defaults. Make your selection based on the volume. Your selection here will only have an impact on the default values for the next dialog. They can be modified in the next step. Whenever in doubt, choose
  2. Underline and choose, and then select the The content of the menu is determined by the file system on which it is shown. In most cases, there is no reason to alter the default settings. Select the mount point from the drop-down menu under. Special mounting options for the volume can be added by clicking on the button. After clicking, double-check that the changes are listed and then click.
Important: RAID on disks

Despite the fact that the partitioner allows you to establish a RAID on top of drives rather than partitions, we do not suggest this technique for a few reasons. The installation of a bootloader on such a RAID is not supported, and as a result, you must boot from a different device. Tools such as fdisk and parted do not function effectively with such RAIDs, which might result in inaccurate diagnosis and actions by a person who is not familiar with the RAID’s specific configuration. By default, software RAID devices are identified by numeric names that follow the pattern mdN, where N is a positive integer.

  • It can be difficult to work with these names.
  • Despite the fact that the device name will remainmdN, the following link will be created: /dev/md/ NAME the output of tuxls -og is /dev/md total 0 lrwxrwxrwx lrwxrwxrwx lrwxrwxrwx lrwxrwxrwx 1st of December, 15:11 -./md127 myRAID -.
  • Providing a Named Device is a good idea.
  • Not only will the device be accessible via the path /dev/myRAID, but it will also be listed as myRAIDunder/proc.
  • As long as the RAIDS are running, they will continue to use the mdNnames until they are stopped and reassembled.
Warning: Incompatible Tools

It is possible that not all tools will support named RAID devices. Any RAID device that is not namedmdN will not be recognized by a tool that is expecting it to be namedmdN. It is necessary to examine the /proc/mdstatfile in order to determine whether a RAID partition has been damaged. If a disk fails, shut down your Linux system and replace the failed hard drive with a new one that has been partitioned in the same manner as the failed disk. To add more devices, you must restart your system and use the commandmodprobe -add/dev/sdX, where x is the device IDs you want to add.

Although you will be able to access all of your data while the RAID is being rebuilt, you may have some performance difficulties until the RAID has been completely rebuilt. There are a variety of reasons why a disk that is part of a RAID array may fail. Here is a list of the most often seen ones:

  • There are issues with the disk media
  • Failure of the disk drive controller
  • Connection to the disk has been lost

It is necessary to replace or repair the device in the event that the disk media or the controller malfunctions. If no hot-spare drive has been included in the RAID configuration, human intervention will be necessary. In the latter scenario, the failed device can be immediately re-added by the mdadmcommand when the connection has been mended. mdadmcommand (which might be automatic). In order to be certain that the disk failure was not caused by a significant disk problem, md / mdadm regards each failed device as defective unless it is specifically informed that the device is not a faulty device.

In such a circumstance, you may informmdadmthat it is OK to automatically re-add the device once it has appeared by tellingmdadm This may be accomplished by including the following line in /etc/mdadm.conf: It is important to note that the device will only be automatically re-added after re-appearing if theudevrules causemdadm -I DISK DEVICE NAME after re-appearing.

For example, if you want this policy to only apply to some devices while leaving the others unaffected, the path=option can be used in the POLICYline in /etc/mdadm.conf, which would limit the non-default action to just those devices that match the criteria.

For additional information, please seeman 5 mdadm.conf.

Creating RAID 5 (Striping with Distributed Parity) in Linux

RAID 5 is a data striping configuration that uses distributed parity across many disks. Striping with distributed parity implies that the parity information will be separated and the data will be stripe over numerous drives, resulting in high data redundancy and data redundancy. Configure Raid 5 on the Linux operating system. It should contain at least three hard drives, if not more, to qualify for RAID Level. RAID 5 is being utilized in large-scale production environments because it is cost-effective and delivers both performance and redundancy while also being cost-effective.

What is Parity?

Parity is the most straightforward and widely used way of identifying flaws in data storage. It saves information on each disk; for example, if we have four disks, one disk space will be divided among all four disks to store the parity information. Despite the fact that one of the disks fails, we can still recover the data by reconstructing using the parity information once the failed disk has been replaced.

Pros and Cons of RAID 5

  1. Improves overall performance
  2. Support for redundancy and fault tolerance is provided. Support for quick-replacement alternatives
  3. Because of the use of parity information, a single disk capacity will be lost. If a single disk dies, there will be no data loss. After replacing the faulty disk, we may do a rebuild from parity. Because the reading will be faster in a transaction-oriented context, it is appropriate for this setting. Writing will be delayed as a result of the overhead associated with parity. It takes a long time to rebuild


In order to construct Raid 5, a minimum of three hard drives are necessary; however, you may add more disks only if you have a specialized hardware raid controller with multiple ports. Here, we’re going to use software RAID and the’mdadm’package to establish a raid configuration. mdadmis is a software that helps us to configure and manage RAID devices on a Linux operating system. There is no configuration file for RAID by default. We must save the configuration file after building and configuring the RAID setup in a separate file calledmdadm.conf, which is located in the same directory as the RAID setup.

Before continuing, I recommend that you read the following articles to have a better knowledge of the fundamentals of RAID in Linux.

  1. Creating RAID 0 (Stripe) in Linux – Part 2
  2. Configuring RAID 1 (Mirroring) in Linux – Part 3
  3. Understanding the Fundamentals of RAID in Linux – Part 1
  4. Creating RAID 0 (Stripe) in Linux – Part 2
  5. Understanding the Fundamentals of RAID in Linux – Part 3
My Server Setup

CentOS 6.5 is the operating system. is the final IP address. rd5.tecmintlocal.com is the hostname for this server. Disk number one: /dev/sdb /dev/sdc is the second disk. Disk number three: /dev/sdd This post is the fourth of a nine-part series on RAID. On this article, we will demonstrate how to configure a softwareRAID 5 with distributed parity in Linux systems or servers using three 20GB disks called /dev/sdb, /dev/sdc, and /dev/sdd.

Step 1: Installing mdadm and Verify Drives

We previously said that we were using the CentOS 6.5 Final edition for this raid configuration, however the same procedures may be followed for RAID configuration in any other Linux-based distribution. 2. —aifconfig | grep lsb release —aifconfig inetCentOS 6.5 Quick Reference 2.If you’ve been following our raid series, we’re assuming that you’ve already installed the’mdadm’package; if not, run the following command to install the package according to your Linux distribution. yum the command install mdadmapt-get the command install mdadm3 Following the installation of the’mdadm’package, we will display the three 20GB disks that we have added to our system by using the’fdisk’command to list them.

grep sd |

4.Using the following command, it is now time to inspect the three associated hard disks to see if any RAID blocks have been created on these drives.

As a result, there is no RAID configured on any of the three disks.

Step 2: Partitioning the Disks for RAID

Prior to adding the disks to a RAID array, we must first partition the disks on our computer (/dev/sdb,/dev/sdc, and/dev/sdd). 6. To begin, we’ll define the partition using the ‘fdisk’ command before moving on to the next stages. fdisk /dev/sdbf /dev/sdbf /dev/sdcfdisk and /dev/sdd are two disk devices.

Create /dev/sdb Partition

Please follow the steps outlined below to create a partition on the /dev/sdbdrive.

  1. In order to create a new division, press the letter “N.” Then, for the Primary partition, select the letter’P’. Because there are no partitions set at this time, we will select Primary in this case. Then select’1’as the first partition from the drop-down menu. It will be set to 1 by default
  2. Because we require the entire partition for RAID, we don’t have to specify the specified size for the cylinder size
  3. Instead, we just press Enter twice to select the default full size. Following that, press’p’to publish the newly established division
  4. We can change the type if we don’t need to know all of the potential types. Press the letter’L ‘
  5. In this case, we are selecting’fd’because my type is RAID
  6. Following that, press’p’to print the specified partition
  7. Then press the ‘p’ key once again to publish the adjustments that we have made. To make modifications, type ‘w’ in the text box.
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Sdb Partition should be created. Note: We must also follow the procedures outlined above in order to build partitions for the sdcsdddrives.

Create /dev/sdc Partition

Alternatively, you may use the techniques outlined above to partition thesdcandsdddrives. To do so, follow the instructions in the screenshot. fdisk /dev/sdcCreate a partition on the sdc device

Create /dev/sdd Partition

fdisk /dev/sdd is a disk device. Make a sdd partition on your hard drive. 6.After creating partitions, inspect all three hard drives (sdb, sdc, and sdd) for changes with the command mdadm -examine /dev/sdb /dev/sdc /dev/sddormdadm -E /dev/sdb Check for Changes in Partitions Note: The type fd, which stands for RAID, is seen in the above image.

7.Now, look for RAID blocks in the freshly formed partitions that you just made. If there are no super-blocks discovered, we may proceed to establish a new RAID 5 configuration on these devices and test it. Examine the Raid on the Partition

Step 3: Creating md device md0

8.Now, using the following command, build a Raid device named md0 (i.e., /dev/md0) and include raid level on all freshly formed partitions (sdb1, sdc1, and sdd1) using the md0 Raid device. MDADMIN=/dev/md0 /dev/md0 /level=5 /raid-devices=3 or mdadmin-C /dev/md0 -l=5 -n=3 /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc1/dev/sdd1ormdadm -C /dev/md0 +l=5 +n=3/dev/sdd1ormdadm Following the creation of a raid device, check and validate the RAID, devices involved, and RAID Level via the themdstatoutput.cat /proc/mdstat command line.

  1. Simply feed the’cat /proc/mdstat’command through with the watch command, and the screen will be refreshed every 1 second.
  2. Summary of the Raid 5 Process 10.After the raid has been created, use the following command to verify that the raid devices are operational.
  3. Please keep in mind that the output of the preceding command will be quite lengthy because it publishes the information for all three disks.
  4. mdadm -detail /dev/md0 is a command that displays the details of a device.

Step 4: Creating file system for md0

Make a file system for the’md0′ device usingext4 before mounting it.mkfs.ext4 /dev/md0 is the command to use. md0 Filesystem should be created. 13. After that, establish a new directory under’/mnt’and mount the newly formed filesystem under /mnt/raid5. If you look at the files beneath the mount point, you will notice thelost+founddirectory.mkdir /mnt/raid5mount /dev/md0 /mnt/raid5/ls -l /mnt/raid5/14, which means the directory has been found. Create a few files in the mount point/mnt/raid5 directory.

the command /mnt/raid5/raid5 tecmint ls -l /mnt/raid5/echo is executed.

In order to create a new item, we must modify the fstab file and insert the following line, as seen above.

vim /etc/fstab/dev/md0/mnt/raid5ext4defaults0/mnt/raid5ext4defaults0 0Raid 5 Automount 0Raid 5 Automount Next, check for faults in the filesystem configuration by using the mount -av command (see step 16).

Step 5: Save Raid 5 Configuration

15.RAID does not have a configuration file by default, as previously stated in the requirements section. It will have to be saved manually. If this step is skipped, the RAID device will not be in md0, but will instead be in some other random number instead. As a result, we must save the settings before the machine is rebooted to avoid losing our work. In this case, the configuration will be loaded into the kernel at the system reboot, and RAID will also be loaded during the system reboot.

run /etc/mdadm.conf mdadm -detail -scan -verbose/etc/mdadm.conf Configuration for Raid 5 should be saved. Note: By saving the settings, the RAID level of the md0 device will remain stable.

Step 6: Adding Spare Drives

The addition of a spare drive is a waste of space. It is quite beneficial to have a spare drive; if any one of the disks in our array fails, the spare drive will become active and reconstruct the process, as well as sync the data from the other disks, so providing redundancy. More detailed instructions on how to add a spare drive and test Raid 5 fault tolerance may be found in the following articles, at Steps 6 and 7.


In this post, we’ve learned how to set up a RAID 5 utilizing three drives, which we’ve demonstrated. My forthcoming posts will address how to troubleshoot a RAID 5 disk that has failed, as well as how to replace it so that the system may be restored.

RAID configuration on Linux – Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud

As with a typical bare metal server, you can utilize any of the standard RAID configurations that are supported by the operating system running on your instance with Amazon EBS, as long as that specific RAID configuration is supported by your instance’s operating system. This is due to the fact that all RAID functions are performed at the software level. Amazon EBS volume data is duplicated across numerous servers in an Availability Zone in order to prevent data loss due to the failure of any single component of the system.

Amazon EBS Availability and Durability may be found on the Amazon EBS product detail pages, where you can get further information.

A RAID array is often configured with Grub loaded on just one of the mirrored drives, and if one of the mirrored devices dies, you may be unable to boot the operating system.

RAID configuration options

In contrast to using a single Amazon EBS volume, using RAID 0 arrays allows you to reach a better degree of performance for a file system than you might otherwise obtain. When performance of I/O operations is critical, RAID 0 should be used. I/O is dispersed among the drives in a stripe structure when using RAID 0. In the case of a volume, the straight addition of throughput and IOPS is obtained. But remember that the performance of a stripe is restricted to the lowest performing volume in the set, and that the loss of even a single volume in the set leads in a total data loss for the whole array.

Using the above example, two 500 GiBio1volumes with 4,000 provided IOPS each may be combined to form a 1000 GiB RAID0 array with an usable bandwidth of 18,000 IOPS and a throughput of 1,000 MiB/s.

These RAID options deliver 20-30 percent fewer useful IOPS than a RAID 0 configuration, depending on the design of your RAID array.

It is also not suggested for usage with Amazon EBS to utilize a RAID 1 configuration.

Because the data is written to several volumes at the same time, RAID 1 deployments use more Amazon EC2 to Amazon EBS bandwidth than non-RAID configurations do. In addition, RAID 1 does not give any benefit in write speed over a single disk.

Create a RAID 0 array on Linux

Create a RAID 0 array for your file system in order to attain a greater degree of performance than you can accomplish on a single Amazon EBS volume. RAID 1 arrays are recommended for most applications. When performance of I/O operations is critical, RAID 0 should be utilized. I/O is dispersed among the disks in a stripe configuration when using RAID 0. Throughput and IOPS are added in a straightforward manner when a volume is used. But remember that the performance of a stripe is restricted to the worst-performing volume in the set, and that the loss of a single volume in the set leads in a total data loss for the whole array.

  • Two 500 GiBio1volumes with 4,000 provisioned IOPS each combine to form a 1000 GiB RAID0 array with a total available bandwidth of 8,000 IOPS and a throughput of 1,000 MiB/s.
  • RAID modes 1 and 2 deliver 20-30 percent fewer useful IOPS than a RAID 0 configuration, depending on the design of your RAID array.
  • When it comes to Amazon EBS, RAID 1 is not recommended either.
  • Furthermore, RAID 1 does not provide any improvement in write performance.
  1. Create the Amazon EBS volumes that will be used by your array. See the following link for further details. Create an Amazon EBS volume on your computer. Create volumes for your array that are of the same size and have the same IOPS performance. Make certain that you do not construct an array that consumes more bandwidth than your EC2 instance can handle at one time. Amazon EBS–optimized instances may be found at this link for further details. Attach the Amazon EBS volumes to the instance that will serve as the host for the array you want to use. See the following link for further details. Create a connection between an instance and an Amazon EBS volume
  2. It is possible to construct a logical RAID device from the freshly joined Amazon EBS volumes using the themdadmcommand. Substitute the number of volumes in your array for number of volumes, and the device names for each volume in your array (for example, /dev/xvdf) for device name in the above code. You may also replace the name MY RAID with a name that is unique to you for the array. You may use the lsblk command to list all of the devices on your instance in order to locate the device names. Run the following command to construct a RAID 0 array (be sure to include the -level=0 option to stripe the array) to create a RAID 0 array: $sudo mdadm -create -verbose /dev/md0 -level=0 -name= MY RAID-raid-devices= number of volumesdevice name1 device name2
  3. $sudo mdadm -create -verbose /dev/md0 -level=0 -name= MY RAID-raid-devices= number of Allow for the RAID array to complete its initialization and synchronization. The following command will allow you to keep track on the progress of these operations: $sudo cat /proc/mdstat /proc/mdstat The following is an illustration of output: Personalities: md0: active raid0 xvdcxvdb41910272 blocks super xvdcxvdb41910272 blocks super 1.2 512k chunks per second Devices that have not been used: none In general, the following command will display detailed information about your RAID array: In general, you can display detailed information about your RAID array with the following command: mdadm -detail /dev/md0 $sudo mdadm -detail /dev/md0 A sample output from /dev/md0 is provided below. Version number: 1.2 Time of creation: Wednesday, May 19, 2021, 11:12:56 a.m. Level of the raid: raid0 41910272 elements in the array (39.97 GiB 42.92 GB) Devices for forming a raid: 2 Total Number of Devices: 2 Superblock has a high level of persistence. Time of the latest update: Wednesday, May 19, 2021 11:12:56 a.m. Cleanliness is a priority. There are 2 active devices, 2 working devices, and 2 failed devices. There are 0 spare devices. Chunk size is 512K bytes. Policy on Consistency: There is none. MY RAID has the following UUID: 646aa723:db31bbc7:13c43daf:d5c51e0c. Events: 0NumberMajorMinorRaidDevice State 0202160active sync/dev/sdb 1202321active sync/dev/sdc
  4. 0NumberMajorMinorRaidDevice State 0202160active sync/dev/sdc
  5. 0NumberMajorMinorRaid Create a file system on your RAID array, and give that file system a label that you will use to identify it when you later want to mount it. For example, the following command may be used to establish an ext4 file system with the labelMY RAID: $sudo mkfs.ext4 -LMY RAID/dev/md0 -LMY RAID/dev/md0 You can choose a different file system type, such as ext3 or XFS, depending on the needs of your application and the constraints of your operating system (see your file system documentation for the related file system creation command)
  6. Create a configuration file that contains the following information to guarantee that the RAID array is automatically reconstituted on boot: $sudo mdadm -detail -scan | sudo tee -a /etc/mdadm.conf $sudo mdadm -detail -scan If you are using a Linux distribution other than Amazon Linux, you may need to make some modifications to this command. Perhaps you’ll need to move the file to a different location or you’ll need to include the-examineparameter in your script. Runman mdadm.conf on your Linux installation to obtain further information. Preload the block device modules for your new RAID configuration by creating a new ramdisk image and saving it to your hard drive: $sudo dracut -H -f /boot/initramfs-$(uname -r).img /boot/initramfs-$(uname -r).img $(uname -r)
  7. $(uname -r)
  8. Make a mount point for your RAID array on your computer. the command $sudo mkdir -p /mnt/ raid
  9. At long last, you must mount the RAID device on the mount point that you already created: mount LABEL= MY RAID/mnt/raid $sudo mount LABEL= MY RAID/mnt/raid This means that your RAID device is now ready to be used. (Optional) Add an entry for the device to the /etc/fstabfile if you want the Amazon EBS volume to be mounted on every system reboot.
  1. Make a copy of your /etc/fstabfile so that you can restore it if you mistakenly destroy or delete it while modifying it. This will save you from losing your work. $sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab.orig
  2. /etc/fstab.orig
  3. Make use of your favorite text editor, such asnano or vim, to open the /etc/fstabfile. Note: Remove any lines that begin with ” UUID= ” before adding a new line for your RAID volume at the end of the file using the following format: device labelmount pointfile system typefs mntopsfs freqfs passno File system mount options, file system dump frequency, and the sequence of file system checks performed at startup time are the last three fields on this line to be specified. If you are unsure of what these values should be, you can substitute the values shown in the following example (defaults,nofail 0 2). More information on /etc/fstabentries may be found on the fstabmanual web page ((by enteringman fstabon the command line). In order to mount the ext4 file system on the device with the label MY RAID at the mount point/mnt/raid, the following item must be added to the file system configuration file /etc/fstab: It is recommended that you include the nofailmount option if you want to boot your instance without this volume connected (for example, so that this volume may be moved between various instances). This option allows the instance to boot even if there are issues in mounting the volume. It is also required that Debian derivatives, such as Ubuntu, provide the nobootwaitmount option. LABEL=MY RAID/mnt/raidext4defaults,nofail02
  4. After you’ve added the new item to /etc/fstab, you’ll want to double-check that it’s functional before moving on. Run thesudo mount -acommand to mount all of the file systems listed in the /etc/fstab file system. mount -a $sudo mount -a If the preceding command did not return an error, then your /etc/fstabfile is in good shape, and your file system will be mounted automatically when the system is rebooted the next time. If the command produces any issues, check the errors and make any necessary changes to your /etc/fstab file. Errors in the /etc/fstabfile have the potential to make a system unbootable. When a system’s /etc/fstabfile has errors, it should not be shutdown. (Optional) When in doubt about how to solve /etc.fstaberrors, you may always restore your backup/etc.fstabfile with the following command: restore backup/etc.fstabfile. $sudo mv /etc/fstab.orig /etc/fstab
  5. $sudo mv /etc/fstab.orig /etc/fstab
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Create snapshots of volumes in a RAID array

If you wish to use snapshots to back up the data on the EBS volumes in a RAID array, you must make certain that the snapshots are consistent. This is due to the fact that the snapshots of these volumes are made in a separate manner. The restoration of EBS volumes in a RAID array from snapshots that are out of sync would result in the array’s integrity being compromised. EBS multi-volume snapshots are a convenient way to produce a consistent set of snapshots for your RAID array. When you use multi-volume snapshots, you may take snapshots across many EBS volumes associated to an EC2 instance at the same time that are point-in-time, data coordinated, and crash consistent.

For further details, read the section Making Amazon EBS snapshots, which includes the processes for creating multi-volume snapshots.

PowerEdge zelfstudies: Fysieke schijven en RAID-controller (PERC) op servers

This page contains case studies on hard disks, virtual disks, and the RAID-controller (PERC) on a PowerEdge server, as well as other resources. The following article describes how to transform a physical schijf or physical station when there is a problem with a storage or a binna-storage facility (prognostische fout). You may get a list of available PERC models, including their generaties and specifications, at the following address: Dell.com/PERC In computing, a RAID-controller is a hardware device found on high-end servers or a software application found on low-end servers that is used to manage hard disk drives (HDDs), solid-state drives (SSDs), a server, or a storage array.

Using a RAID-controller, it is possible to regulate the connection between a group of physical disks and the besturing system, allowing for the construction of data protection schemes like as RAID-5 or RAID-10 in order to protect and maintain data integrity.


  • More information about RAID may be found at: RAID-controller
  • Harde schijven
  • Virtuele schijven
  • RAID-controller

Legend Bijschrift: Illustration of disks that have been installed on a backplane and are communicating with the RAID-controller in order to provide the host with two virtual disks.

Bewerkingen op harde schijven (HDD)

What is the significance of LEDs on physical structures (PD)? The majority of the time, these Led’s knippers are green. When the color orange is mentioned, it may be useful to know what the color code means. What is the best way to identify the characteristics of a hard disk and to make changes to the firmware? Every hard disk drives makes use of a firmware that has been provided by the manufacturer. New versions improve the trustworthiness of the product. Information about how to control the current version of the software and how to update it with new versions.

  1. Is it true that a hard schijf, such as the one described above, is not created?
  2. What is the best way to deal with a voorspellende storage schijf?
  3. It is possible that you wish to replace the hard drive prior to saving your data.
  4. It is simple to take the HDD offline in OpenManage Server Administrator once a functional schijf has been disconnected from a backplane, as long as the backplane is still operational.
  5. Is it possible to change the physical configuration of an HDD (hot-swap procedure)?
  6. The steps that must be taken in order for the component to be rendered safe are detailed in the method that is followed.
  7. The use of the Dell nautilus-firmware-update help application is, without a doubt, one of the most straightforward and most flexible methods of updating the firmware on your hard drive.

Bewerkingen op virtuele schijven (VD)

Making a virtual schijf is the first step that you must complete before you can enter any data into your database. On the basis of the PERC model, there are differences in the settings. The process of generating the PERC is described in further detail on the next page. Dell.com/PERCPERC 7, 8 of 9: Dell.com/PERCPERC 7, 8 of 9: How can I create a virtual schijf with the help of the PERC BIOS software? PERC 10 and 11: PERC 10 and 11: Create a virtual computer with the help of the PERC BIOS and the iDRAC 9 web interface.

  1. Dell PowerEdge: Increasing the RAID level of a virtual cpu is now possible.
  2. How can I put a defective schijf in a PERC S100, S110, or S300 and then replace it with a good one?
  3. What is the best way to towijzen a hard schijf in the world-famous Hot Spare?
  4. (OMSA/PERC BIOS/iDRAC/OMSA/PERC BIOS) Hot SPARS in System Setup in the PowerEdge RAID-controller 10 have been identified and are being addressed.
  5. How can I create a virtual schijf?
  6. You may enable the RAID-grootte by converting a virtual schijf into a physical one.
  7. It is possible to configure an online virtual hard drive in such a way that the capacity is increased and/or the RAID-level is decreased or increased.
  8. This is possible in both cases.
  9. A working backup is a wise choice before embarking on a critical data processing project or doing a major component of a planned maintenance program.
  10. The BIOS can be used to disable a virtual computer’s capabilities.

Configuration of the System Importing a virtual hard drive that is treated as an external drive and is hence compatible with the BIOS menus. Please keep in mind that the RAID-prestaties are only updated when the controller is being worked on.

Bewerkingen op PowerEdge RAID-controller (PERC)

What is the procedure for updating a PERC RAID-controller (PERC)? On a RAID-controllerkaart, it is possible to install the firmware as well as the bootloader software.

  • It is necessary to upgrade Dell PowerEdge-stuurprogramma or firmware (both Windows and Linux) in order to learn more about the besturing system
  • The stuurprogramma must be modified in order to work correctly with the besturing system
  • It is possible to work on firmware remotely from the besturing system, such as by installing Dell PowerEdge-stuurprogramma or firmware remotely from the besturing system (Windows and Linux), or by using the Dell Remote Access Controller (iDRAC) web-interface, which has been specially designed for this purpose.

What is the procedure for launching the PowerEdge RAID configuration assistance program? The following are the requirements for PERC kaarten maintenance:

  • Dell OpenManage Opslagbeheer
  • Uitgebreid ingebouwd beheer
  • Uitgebreid ingebouwd beheer A help application for configuring the Human Interface Infrastructure (HII)
  • The PERC Command Line Interface (CLI)

In addition, the BIOS configuration application is not supported on PERC 10- and newer kaarten (see below). Is it possible to export PERC log files with the help of software tools? Another alternative approach for obtaining log files from RAID controllers for further analysis is to make use of the software provided by a tool such as PercCLI, which can be downloaded from the internet. What is the role of the RAID-controller (PERC CLI) in the operation of the system? During the course of the article, you will receive a list of the available opdracht regulations.

Extra RAID-bewerkingen en -informatie

RAID-arrays are being affected by several errors and botching, which is causing them to fail. What are dubbele errors and botsing? This is explained in detail in the articledubbele errors and botsing, which results in ingedeukt RAID-arrays. The treatment of double fouls and Punctured-appositions is possible through the implementation of certain actions. In this tutorial, you will learn how to repair a RAID-gaten vuur using the PERC-hoe tool. What is the best way to resolve PowerEdge RAID-controller kaart fouten?

Zieopslag Adapterscontrollers, choose your specific PERC model and follow the instructions in the documentation.

It is possible to use many stations in a RAID configuration using this article.

A RAID is a collection of physically indistinguishable schijven.

The datadoorvoer is improved as a result of the benadering of many schijven at the same time.

If a data loss is the result of an electrical or mechanical failure, it is possible to recover the data by combining the lost data with new data or parity information and putting it on the remaining electrical or mechanical failures.

What what is the PERC function, and how do you go about activating it?

A reversal of this processing is not possible.

What exactly does the phrase “no operational launch apparatus available” mean?

The besturing system is never actually loaded, and the error message ‘No boot device available’ (Geen opstartapparaat beschikbaar) is never displayed. Nothing happens as a result. More information may be found in the article. There is no available start-up apparatus at this time.

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