Which Term Describes The Layer Of Software That Resides? (Correct answer)

A hypervisor is a thin layer of software that resides between the virtual operating system(s) and the hardware. The physical host is the actual hardware that the hypervisor software runs on.

  • A hypervisor is a thin layer of software that resides between the virtual operating system (s) and the hardware. The physical host is the actual hardware that the hypervisor software runs on. Workload management relates to the portability of virtual machines.


What key advantage does a virtual router have?

The key advantage of a virtual router is that it can support multiple networks on a single router interface. It does this by using a different routing table for each network.

What term describes underlying OS running the virtualization software?

A host OS is the software installed on a computer that interacts with the underlying hardware and is usually used to describe an operating system used in a virtualized server to differentiate it from the guest operating system.

What are the main types of cloud services quizlet?

Terms in this set (26)

  • Private cloud.
  • Hybrid cloud.
  • Public cloud.
  • Community cloud.

When referring to cloud computing what does the term cloud mean?

The word “cloud” often refers to the Internet, which more precisely means a datacenter full of servers connected to the Internet performing a service. However, the term “cloud computing” refers to the software and services that have enabled the Internet to become so prominent in everyday life (see cloud computing).

Which of the following devices is used on a LAN?

LANs generally consist of cables and switches, which can be connected to a router, cable modem, or ADSL modem for Internet access. LANs can also include such network devices as firewalls, load balancers, and network intrusion detection.

What type of virtualization completely simulates a real physical host?

What type of virtualization completely simulates a real physical host? In full virtualization, the virtual machine completely simulates a real physical host. This allows most operating systems and applications to run within the virtual machine without being modified in any way. You just studied 4 terms!

Which term describes the layer of software that resides between the virtual operating system and the physical hardware it runs on in a virtualization environment?

A hypervisor is a thin layer of software that resides between the virtual operating system(s) and the hardware. The physical host is the actual hardware that the hypervisor software runs on.

What is virtualization layer?

Virtualization uses software to create an abstraction layer over computer hardware that allows the hardware elements of a single computer—processors, memory, storage and more—to be divided into multiple virtual computers, commonly called virtual machines (VMs).

What is virtualization in distributed system?

Virtualization creates an environment wherein it emulates and imitates various hardware components like CPU, OS, software, I/O devices and storage devices to numerous virtual machines (VM). Each node in the distributed system is a virtual machine running independently.

What are the three main types of cloud computing?

There are also 3 main types of cloud computing services: Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platforms-as-a-Service (PaaS), and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS).

What is cloud computing list the 3 types of cloud services presented in the chapter and define each?

Cloud computing can be broken up into three main services: Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). These three services make up what Rackspace calls the Cloud Computing Stack, with SaaS on top, PaaS in the middle, and IaaS on the bottom.

What are the three main cloud computing service models?

What are the three common cloud service models?

  • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
  • Platform as a Service (PaaS)
  • Software as a Service (SaaS)

Which one of the following refers to the user’s part of the cloud computing system?

3. Which of the following refers to the client part of cloud computing system? Explanation: The front end refers to the client part of cloud computing system. It consists of interfaces and applications that are required to access the cloud computing platforms.

Which term describes a cloud provider?

Answer: Multitenancy. Explanation: klondikegj and 52 more users found this answer helpful.

What is a Hypervisor?

VMM (virtual machine monitor) is software that allows you to construct and run virtual machines. A hypervisor is sometimes known as a virtual machine monitor (VMs). A hypervisor enables a single host computer to handle many virtual machines (VMs) by virtualizing and sharing its resources, such as memory and processing power.

VMware vSphere Hypervisor 7.0 U3 Download Center

In computing, a hypervisor, often known as a virtual machine monitor or VMM, is software that is used to construct and run virtual machines (VMs). When a hypervisor is used, a single host computer may handle several virtual machines (VMs) by virtually sharing its resources, such as memory and processing power.

  • Faster virtual machine creation: Unlike bare-metal servers, hypervisors allow virtual machines to be generated in real time. This makes it easy to supply resources on-demand for dynamic workloads, which is very useful. Efficiency: Hypervisors, which allow several virtual computers to share the resources of a single physical system, allow for more efficient usage of a single physical server’s resources. The cost and energy savings of running numerous virtual machines on a single physical machine outweigh the costs and energy savings of running multiple underused actual machines for the same work. Flexibility: Because the hypervisor separates the operating system from the underlying hardware, bare-metal hypervisors allow operating systems and their associated applications to run on a wide range of hardware types. Because the hypervisor separates the operating system from the underlying hardware, the software no longer relies on specific hardware devices or drivers
  • And Mobility: Hypervisors allow various operating systems to coexist on the same physical server, allowing for greater efficiency (host machine). Because the virtual computers that the hypervisor operates are separate from the real system on which they are running, they may be moved around. As workloads change, IT professionals may move them from one machine to another or from one platform to another, allocating networking, memory, storage, and processor resources across several servers as needed. When a program requires greater processing capacity, virtualization software allows it to access multiple computers without having to restart the program.

Because the guest virtual machines (VMs) are not dependent on the host hardware, hypervisors allow for improved use of a system’s available resources as well as more IT mobility. As a result, they may be simply transferred across different server environments. Because a hypervisor allows numerous virtual machines to run on a single physical server, it helps to alleviate the following problems: There are two primary types of hypervisors, which are referred to as “Type 1” (also known as “bare metal”) and “Type 2” (also known as “hosted”).

  1. The type 1 hypervisor, also known as a bare-metal hypervisor, is the most widely used form of hypervisor since it allows virtualization software to be loaded directly on the hardware where the operating system would typically be installed.
  2. Furthermore, they often outperform and outperform more efficiently than hosted hypervisors.
  3. Hosting hypervisors, as opposed to bare-metal hypervisors, run on top of the host machine’s operating system, rather than on the computer hardware itself.
  4. In comparison to bare-metal hypervisors, the disadvantage of hosted hypervisors is that their latency is higher.
  5. In certain circles, hosted hypervisors are referred to as client hypervisors since they are more frequently utilized with end users and for software testing, where increased latency is less of an issue than with other applications.
  6. An advanced sort of hardware accelerator called as avirtual Dedicated Visuals Accelerator (vDGA) is responsible for the transmission and refreshment of high-end 3-D graphics.
  7. This technique may be extremely beneficial in areas such as oil and gas exploration, where it is necessary to swiftly view large amounts of complicated data.

Server space on separate virtual servers is leased to different enterprises by public cloud service providers on a monthly basis.

When one of the tenants has a heavy workload that interferes with the server performance for the other tenants, this sort of resource sharing might result in a “noisy neighbor” effect.

It is always more efficient to use a bare-metal server that a single corporation has complete control over than to use a virtual server that shares a physical server’s bandwidth, memory, and processing capacity with other virtual servers.

Businesses who are required to comply with requirements that mandate physical separation of resources will be required to utilize their own bare-metal servers that do not share resources with other tenants in order to achieve compliance.

Because a hypervisor is a software layer that allows a single host computer to handle several virtual machines at the same time, hypervisors are an important component of the technology that makes cloud computing feasible.

As a result of digital transformation and increased consumer expectations, businesses are placing an increasing amount of dependence on creative apps.

Having to redesign every current application for the cloud, on the other hand, might occupy valuable IT resources and result in the creation of infrastructure silos.

Because of this, businesses may reap the numerous benefits of the cloud, including lower hardware costs, more accessibility and higher scalability, for a faster return on their investment in cloud computing technology.

In order for virtualization to be viable, hypervisors must be used to translate requests between physical and virtual resources.

Applications are made quicker and more efficient by using containers and hypervisors, but they do it in a somewhat different way because to their differences in architecture. Hypervisors:

  • Make it possible for an operating system to run independently of the underlying hardware by employing virtual machines
  • Virtual compute, storage, and memory resources should be shared. This virtualization technology may be used to run various operating systems on a single server (bare-metal hypervisor), or it can be put on top of a regular operating system and segregated from it (hosted hypervisor)


  • Applications should be able to execute independently of the operating system
  • They are capable of running on any operating system
  • All they require is a container engine to function. They are particularly portable since an application has everything it requires to execute within a container

Virtualization technology such as hypervisors and containers are utilized for diverse applications. Hypervisors are used to generate and run virtual machines (VMs), each of which has its own entire operating system and is completely separated from the others through the use of virtualization. Containers, as opposed to virtual machines, only hold an application and its associated services. As a result, they are more lightweight and portable than virtual machines, and they are frequently utilized for rapid and flexible application development as well as migration.

What is a Hypervisor? Types of Hypervisors Explained (1 & 2)

Server virtualization is now a popular issue in the information technology industry. In recent years, it has gained in popularity and acceptance, particularly in business situations. Hypervisors are the software that makes virtualization feasible. Server virtualization allows several operating systems to execute independent applications on a single server while yet utilizing the same physical resources as the original server. These virtual machines enable system and network managers to have a dedicated computer for each service that they need to execute on their networks.

In this post, we will explain what hypervisors are, how they function, and the many types of hypervisors that are now available.

What are Hypervisors?

A hypervisor is a critical component of software that enables virtualization to take place on a computer. It separates the physical hardware from the guest computers and the operating systems that they run on top of it. When you use a hypervisor, you’re creating a virtualization layer that isolates the actual resources (such as CPUs and processors) from the virtual computers you’re creating. The computer on which we install a hypervisor is referred to as a host machine, as opposed to the guest virtual machines that operate on top of it.

No matter the operating system you choose to boot up in a virtual machine, the operating system will believe that it has access to genuine physical hardware.

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The hypervisor does not inform the guest computers that they are operating in a virtual environment.

Virtual machines (VMs) run in parallel with the hardware that powers them, and as a result, they are completely reliant on the hardware’s continued functioning.

  • Type 1 Hypervisor (also known as bare metal or native)
  • Type 2 Hypervisor (also known as hosted hypervisors)
  • Type 3 Hypervisor (also known as cloud hypervisors).

Type 1 Hypervisor

Type 1 bare-metal hypervisors are software layers that are installed directly on top of a real server and its underlying hardware. There is no software or operating system in between, which is why it is referred to as a bare-metal hypervisor. Because it does not operate within Windows or any other operating system, a Type 1 hypervisor has demonstrated its potential to deliver exceptional performance and reliability. Type 1 hypervisors are operating systems in and of themselves, although a very rudimentary one on top of which virtual machines can be operated.

The physical system on which the hypervisor is running is only for the purpose of virtualization. You are not permitted to use it for any other purpose. Type 1 hypervisors are typically found in enterprise situations, where they perform well.

Hypervisor Type 1 Performance

Due to the fact that type 1 hypervisors are rather basic, they do not provide a wide range of features. When you power up a physical server with a bare-metal hypervisor installed, it displays a screen that looks similar to a command prompt. When you connect a monitor to the server, you will be able to examine some of the server’s hardware and network configuration data. The CPU type, the amount of RAM, the IP address, and the MAC address are all included in this section. Following is an illustration of the screen displayed by a VMware type 1 hypervisor after the server has booted up.

  • This includes altering the date and time, the IP address, the password, and so on.
  • You may connect to the hypervisor running on the server and administer your virtual environment using the console interface.
  • The cost of management console licenses vary significantly depending on the functions that are required by the organization.
  • This change is based on the resource requirements of a VM at a specific point in time and has no effect on the end-users’ experience.
  • When a problem occurs, management software that has been properly setup switches virtual machines to a functional server as quickly as possible.
  • One of the most advantageous characteristics of type 1 hypervisors is that they enable for the over-allocation of physical resources to be accomplished.
  • Example: If you have 128 GB of RAM on your server and eight virtual machines, you may assign 24GB of RAM to each of the virtual machines on your server.
  • The virtual machines (VMs) believe they have 24GB of RAM, whereas in reality they only consume the amount of RAM required to complete specific activities.
  • The fact that all current business data centers, such as phoenixNAP, employ type 1 hypervisors is one of the reasons for this.

Type 1 Vendors

There are a plethora of different hypervisor suppliers to choose from. Most companies provide free trial periods so that you may evaluate their services before purchasing them. If you want all of the bells and whistles that they have to offer, the license prices might be rather costly. The following are the most often seen type 1 hypervisors: VMware vSphere with ESX/ESXi is a virtualization platform. VMware is the industry’s top vendor of virtualization technology, and its products are used in a huge number of major data centers.

  • If you do not want all of the sophisticated capabilities that VMware vSphere has to offer, there is a free version of this hypervisor as well as a number of commercial licenses to choose from.
  • A hypervisor is created by converting the Linux kernel into a virtual machine.
  • Hardware and virtual computers that it hosts are both accessible directly by the company.
  • KVM is available for free and may be downloaded from the KVM website.
  • Live migration, scheduling, and resource control, as well as increased priority, are just a few of the features that stand out.
  • How to Install KVM on Ubuntu and How to Install KVM on CentOS are both available online.
  • Microsoft also provides a free edition of their hypervisor, but if you want a graphical user interface (GUI) and more functions, you’ll have to purchase one of the commercial versions instead.
  • You can do live migrations, replicate virtual machines, use dynamic memory, and many other functions.
  • Paid versions have additional features that are not accessible in free versions.
  • In the past, this server virtualization technology from Citrix was known as Xen Server.

It is capable of handling a wide range of workloads and has functionality for even the most demanding tasks. Citrix is proud of its exclusive features, which include improved virtualized graphics powered by Intel and NVIDIA, as well as workload security through the use of Direct Inspect APIs.

Type 2 Hypervisor

This sort of hypervisor runs within the confines of an operating system on a physically connected host computer. This is why type 2 hypervisors are referred to as hosted hypervisors. Hosted hypervisors, as opposed to type 1 hypervisors, which operate directly on the hardware, have a single software layer underlying them. In this particular instance, we have:

  • A physical mechanism of some sort
  • An operating system (Windows, Linux, or macOS) that has been installed on the hardware. Type 2 hypervisor software running on that operating system’s host computer The instances of guest virtual machines that are actually running

Type 2 hypervisors are often encountered in setups with a modest number of servers, as the name suggests. The fact that they do not require the use of a management interface on another system to set up and maintain virtual machines is what makes them so easy. It is possible to accomplish all of this on the same server where the hypervisor is installed. They are no different from the other apps that are already installed on your computer’s operating system. When you start a virtual computer, you are presented with a new window in which to complete all tasks.

Hypervisor Type 2 Performance

Hosted hypervisors are essentially management consoles for virtual machines, and you may do any operation with the help of the built-in functions of the hypervisor. There is no need to install additional software on a separate system in order to establish and manage your virtualized environment. You install and execute a type 2 hypervisor in the same way that you would any other application within your operating system. It allows you to make snapshots or clones of your virtual machines, as well as import and export appliances, among other things.

  1. Hypervisors running on bare metal may dynamically assign available resources based on the present requirements of a specific virtual machine.
  2. When you assign 8GB of RAM to a virtual machine, the amount will be used even if the VM is only consuming a fraction of that amount.
  3. Creating another virtual machine with 8GB of RAM might cause your system to crash.
  4. Type 2 hypervisors are useful for experimenting with new software and doing research projects.
  5. All that is required is that there are sufficient physical resources available to keep both the host and the virtual machines operational at all times.

Type 2 Vendors

As is the case with bare-metal hypervisors, you have a plethora of suppliers and solutions from which to pick from. Conveniently, many type 2 hypervisors are available for free in their most basic forms, which nonetheless provide adequate functionality. In certain cases, you may even get advanced features and speed enhancements just by installing add-on packages, which are usually free. A couple of the most widely used hosted hypervisors will be mentioned: Oracle VM VirtualBox is a virtual machine.

  • In terms of resource consumption, VirtualBox is a lightweight solution that has shown to be effective for both desktop and server virtualization.
  • VMware Workstation Pro/VMware Fusion is a virtualization software package.
  • It is jam-packed with sophisticated capabilities and integrates seamlessly with VMware vSphere.
  • There is a cost associated with it, as there is no free version available.
  • In its most basic form, this hypervisor may be used in tiny sandbox settings to test software.
  • It has less features than the previous model, but it is also less expensive.
  • Multiple Windows 7 and Vista versions, as well as Windows XP Service Pack 3, are included.
  • Parallels Desktop is a rival to VMware Fusion in terms of functionality.

It is primarily geared for MacOS users and, depending on the version you purchase, it contains a plethora of functions. A few of the features include network conditioning, interaction with Chef, Ohai, Docker, and Vagrant, and support for up to 128GB of memory per virtual machine, among others.

Type 1 vs. Type 2 Hypervisor

Choosing the most appropriate type of hypervisor is entirely dependent on your unique requirements. The first thing you should consider is the size of the virtual environment that you wish to operate on your computer. If you are looking for a hypervisor for personal use or modest deployments, you should choose one of the type 2 hypervisors. If money is not a problem, VMware will give you with all of the features you require. Aside from that, Oracle VM VirtualBox is a hypervisor that will give the majority of the functionality that is often required.

  • Typically, the cost of licensing is the most important consideration.
  • In the present market, there is a competition between the VMware vSphere and the Microsoft Hyper-V virtualization platforms.
  • It is possible to make the same case in favor of KVM.
  • It is possible that you may wish to construct a list of the prerequisites.
  • Take note that trial periods might be quite important when deciding which hypervisor to utilize in a certain situation.
  • Vendors of hypervisors provide bundles that include various products with a variety of license agreements.
  • Despite the fact that you can migrate between hypervisors, doing so can be a time-consuming and expensive operation.
  • Was this article of assistance?

Virtualization 101: What is a Hypervisor?

If you’re just getting started with cloud computing and virtualized systems, it’s critical to learn how to use solutions such as Hyper-V, vSphere, and XenApp. Starting to work with a virtual machine may be useful since it is a highly efficient and isolated replica of a real-world computing environment. High availability and quick catastrophe recovery are two of its key characteristics. Virtualization technology also allows you to increase the capabilities of your hardware while simultaneously lowering your IT-related expenditures and improving the stability and security of your computer system.

What is Hypervisor?

To get started with cloud and virtualized systems, it’s necessary to understand how solutions like Hyper-V, vSphere, and XenApp may be used to accomplish your goals. Because it is an efficient and isolated clone of a real machine, beginning to work with a virtual machine may be beneficial.

High availability and quick catastrophe recovery are provided by this system. Virtualization technology also allows you to extend the capabilities of your hardware, reduce IT-related expenditures, and increase the stability and security of your system, among other things.

How does it work?

It would be necessary for the servers to run the hypervisor. The hypervisor, on the other hand, is responsible for loading the operating systems of the virtual machines’ clients. The hypervisor ensures that each virtual machine has the appropriate amount of CPU resources, memory, bandwidth, and disk storage space. A virtual machine can send requests to the hypervisor using a number of techniques, including API calls, to communicate with the hypervisor. Hypervisors are classified into two categories:

  1. Hypervisors that are embedded or hosted, as well as bare metal or native hypervisors

Bare metal, native or type I hypervisors

This is when the hypervisors are installed on the host’s hardware in order to control it as well as manage the virtual machines that are running on the host. If you are presently working with a hypervisor such as the Microsoft Hyper-V hypervisor, VMware ESX/ESXi, Oracle VM Server for x86, KVM, or Citrix XenServer, then you are working with a type of hypervisor such as this.

Embedded, hosted or type II hypervisors

In this case, the hypervisors are installed on the host’s hardware and are used to control and manage the virtual machines on the host. This is the sort of hypervisor with which you are now working if you are currently utilizing the Microsoft Hyper-V hypervisor, VMware ESX/ESXi, Oracle VM Server for x86, KVM, or Citrix XenServer.

Hypervisors for Data Replication

What are the applications of hypervisors, and where do they find their place in the world? Hypervisors can be used in data services to simplify the process of copying and replicating data. The use of a hypervisor for replication is also more cost effective and less complex than the use of other replication methods, particularly those that involve virtual machines. Historically, it has been quite difficult to duplicate virtual machines. For starters, you’d need to understand how to manage and perform data replication.

If you have a large number of virtual machines running on a single piece of hardware, you will need a significant amount of storage to accommodate the entire volume of data.

Hypervisor-based replication is also hardware neutral, which means that you can store any data duplicates on any storage device that supports the replication technology.

Microsoft has also included this feature in any Windows package that includes the Hyper-V virtualization technology.

Hypervisors for consolidating servers

Hypervisors are equipped with a graphical dashboard on which you may operate. They are also plug-able, which allows you to download additional features. Using this feature, you may quickly combine your servers, even if they are running different operating systems.

Hypervisors for desktop virtualization

A hypervisor may be used to quickly and easily host a virtual desktop on a server.

An identical clone of the user’s real desktop will be created in this virtual desktop environment. As a result, your staff will be able to work from anywhere in the world since they will be able to connect to their PCs over the Internet or using a thin client.

Cloud Computing Security and Hypervisors: Safe?

Now we get to the more significant subject of whether or not hypervisors can help to make cloud computing a more safe environment to work in. A hypervisor is a natural target for hackers since it is meant to handle all of the resources of the hardware while also controlling all of the virtual machines that are running on the hypervisor. There is bad news, however: a hypervisor is vulnerable to a large amount of malicious code, particularly code that originates from an infected virtual machine.

  1. Despite the fact that there are numerous instances of these sorts of attacks, they are rarely widely acknowledged.
  2. You should be aware of any vulnerabilities that may exist and ensure that you handle them, as well as the configurations, to ensure that your system is secure at all times.
  3. Fortunately, the growing need for more secure APIs, as well as smart network architecture, can assist to limit the hazards.
  4. If you’re ready to begin practicing with virtual machines, have a look at these entertaining videos and this excellent read:
  • How to Create a Virtual Machine with Hyper-V 3.0
  • How to Run Hyper-V in vSphere 5.1
  • Server 2012 Training: Hyper-V Essentialsby Darren Slavin DAVID DAVID
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Hardware virtualization – Wikipedia

It is the virtualization of computers as whole hardware platforms, particular logical abstractions of their componentry, or merely the functionality necessary to run multiple operating systems that is known as hardware virtualization. In computing, virtualization conceals the physical properties of a computing platform from the users, presenting them with an abstract computing platform in place of the real qualities. It was originally known as a “control program” when the software that managed virtualization was first developed, but the words “hypervisor” and “virtual machine monitor” have since come to be favored.


During the 1960s, the word “virtualization” was developed in order to refer to avirtual machine (also known as a “pseudo machine”), a phrase that originally originated from the IBM M44/44X experimental system. The process of creating and managing virtual machines has been referred to as “platform virtualization” or “server virtualization” in more recent years, respectively. Hosting software (a control program) produces a simulated computer environment, known as a virtual machine (VM), for its guests’ software, which is then run on the simulated computer environment, known as platform virtualization.

While the guest software behaves as if it were operating directly on the actual hardware, there are a few important distinctions to be made.

Depending on the hardware access policy imposed by the virtualization host, guests are frequently barred from accessing certain peripheral devices or may be restricted to a subset of the device’s natural capabilities.

The use of virtualization frequently results in performance penalties, both in terms of the resources required to run the hypervisor and in terms of lower performance on the virtual machine when compared to natively executing on the actual computer.

Reasons for virtualization

  • Server consolidation is the process of replacing a large number of tiny physical servers with a single bigger physical server in order to reduce the need for more (and more expensive) hardware resources such as CPUs and hard drives. Despite the fact that virtual environments combine hardware, operating systems are not often consolidated. Instead, each operating system running on a real server is turned into a separate operating system running within a virtual machine. As a result, a big server may “host” a huge number of virtual computers that act as “guests.” When this happens, it is referred to as Physical-to-Virtual(P2V) transition. In addition to lowering the costs of equipment and labor associated with equipment maintenance, consolidating servers can have the additional benefit of lowering energy consumption and the global footprint in the environmental and ecological sectors of technology, which can be particularly beneficial. As an example, a typical server operates at 425 Wand speed. VMware predicts a hardware reduction ratio of up to 15:1 in the future. Because it is easier to manage and monitor a virtual machine (VM) from a remote location than a real computer, VMs are more versatile in their design than physical machines. In kernel development and teaching operating system classes, this is particularly beneficial since it allows students to run outdated operating systems that do not support contemporary hardware. In this way, a new virtual machine may be supplied as needed without the need to make an upfront hardware purchase. A virtual computer may be readily moved from one real machine to another, depending on the situation. For example, a salesman visiting a customer can copy a virtual machine containing the demonstration program on their laptop, eliminating the need to bring the real computer with the demonstration software. Furthermore, an error within a virtual machine has no effect on the host system, therefore there is no possibility of the operating system on the laptop crashing. Because of the simplicity with which virtual computers may be relocated, they can be utilized in disaster recovery situations without having to be concerned about the impact of refurbished and malfunctioning energy supplies.

When numerous virtual machines (VMs) are operating on the same physical host at the same time, each VM’s performance may be inconsistent and unstable, since the strain put on the system by the other VMs is heavily dependent on the performance of the other VMs. This issue may be resolved by using proper installation mechanisms for temporal isolation across virtual machines in the first place. Platform virtualization may be accomplished in a variety of ways. Examples of virtualization applications include:

  • Running one or more apps that are not supported by the operating system running on the host computer: A virtual machine running the needed guest operating system might allow the desired apps to execute without requiring any changes to the host operating system. Examining an alternative operating system consists of the following steps: The new operating system may be executed within a virtual machine (VM) without affecting the host operating system
  • Server virtualization allows several virtual servers to be operated on a single physical server, allowing the real server’s hardware resources to be more fully utilized. Creating exact replicas of certain environments: In certain cases, depending on the virtualization software used, a virtual machine can be cloned and deployed on different hosts, while in others, it can be restored to a previously backed-up system state. In the event that a guest operating system running on a VM becomes damaged in a way that is not cost-effective to repair, as may occur when studying malware or installing poorly behaved software, the VM may simply be discarded without harming the host system, and a clean copy of the guest operating system may be used when the guest is rebooted.

Full virtualization

Full virtualization is depicted in this diagram. In complete virtualization, the virtual machine replicates enough hardware to allow an unmodified “guest” operating system developed for the same instruction set to run in isolation on the virtual machine’s hardware. The IBMCP-40 and CP-67, forerunners of theVMfamily, were the first computers to use this method, which was introduced in 1966.

Hardware-assisted virtualization

When using hardware-assisted virtualization, the hardware offers architectural support that makes it easier to establish a virtual machine monitor and allows guest operating systems to function in isolation from the host operating system. In 1972, the IBM System/370 was the first computer to provide hardware-assisted virtualization, which was used in conjunction with VM/370, the world’s first virtual machine operating system. Additionally, Intel and AMD delivered additional hardware to enable virtualization in 2005 and 2006.

In 2006, it was discovered that first-generation 32- and 64-bit x86 hardware support provided no significant performance gains over software virtualization when compared to the latter.


If a virtual machine does not necessarily replicate hardware, but instead (or in addition) provides a custom API that can only be accessed by altering the “guest” operating system, this is called paravirtualization. The source code for the “guest” operating system must be made public in order for this to be viable. Once sensitive instructions have been replaced with calls to VMM APIs (for example, “cli” has been replaced with “vm handle cli()”), it is sufficient to recompile the operating system and utilize the new binaries if the source code is accessible.

Operating-system-level virtualization

Physical servers are virtualized at the operating system level in operating-system level virtualization. This allows numerous isolated and secure virtualized servers to run on a single physical server in this configuration. Unlike the host operating system, the “guest” operating system environments are able to share a single instance of the operating system that is now executing.

Consequently, the same operating system kernel is utilized to construct the “guest” environments, and programs running in a particular “guest” environment treat it as if it were a stand-alone system.

Hardware virtualization disaster recovery

A disaster recovery (DR) strategy is frequently regarded as best practice when it comes to a hardware virtualization platform. It is possible to maintain a high rate of availability in a virtualized environment during a wide range of scenarios that may otherwise cause a disruption in routine company operations. It is critical to guarantee that hardware virtualization platforms continue to operate in situations when they are critical to the business. A disaster recovery strategy helps ensure that hardware performance and maintenance needs are satisfied.

  • Software data long-term storage requirements are met through tape backup.
  • Tape backup data is only as good as the most recent copy that was placed on the tape.
  • Replication of whole files and applications Typically, control software and storage capacity for application and data file storage replication will be required for this technique to be implemented on the same site as the application and data file storage replication.
  • It is most commonly used for database-type applications.

See also

  1. “19.” Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective (PDF) (Eds. E. Turban and David King), Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective (PDF), Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective (PDF), Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective (PDF) (5th ed.). “Virtualization in education,” Prentice-Hall, p. 27
  2. “Virtualization in education” (PDF). abCreasy, R.J., IBM, October 2007, retrieved on July 6, 2010
  3. AbCreasy, R.J. (1981). “The History of the VM/370 Time-sharing System” “The History of the VM/370 Time-sharing System” (PDF). IBM, retrieved on February 26th, 2013
  4. Profiles of Energy Consumption for More Efficient Consumption
  5. Rajesh Chheda, Dan Shookowsky, Steve Stefanovich, and Joe Toscano Overview of the VMware server consolidation technology
  6. Taking a look at VMware August 2000 issue of Dr. Dobb’s Journal Jason Niehand contributed to this article. Ozgur Can Leonard, a.k.a. Ozgur Can Leonard
  7. The article by R. Uhlig and colleagues, “Intel virtualization technology,” Computer, vol.38, no.5, pp. 48-56, May 2005, is available online. A Comparison of Software and Hardware Techniques for x86 Virtualization, published in IEEE Transactions on Computers. VMware’s Keith Adams and Ole Agesen presented their work at ASPLOS’06, which took place from October 21–25 in San Jose, California, USA. “Our research reveals that first-generation hardware support seldom provides performance gains over existing software solutions, which is a surprising finding. Our explanation for this issue is a combination of high VMM/guest transition costs and an inflexible programming approach that offers little space for software flexibility in terms of controlling either the frequency or cost of these transitions.” A guide to disaster recovery, titled “The One Essential Guide to Disaster Recovery: How to Ensure IT and Business Continuity,” is available for purchase (PDF). Vision Solutions, Inc. was founded in 2010. A version of this article was originally published in PDF on May 16, 2011. Wold, G. (2008). “Disaster Recovery Planning Process.” Disaster Recovery Virtualization Protecting Production Systems Using VMware Virtual Infrastructure and Double-Take” was published on August 15, 2012, and has been archived from the original on August 15, 2012. (PDF). VMware, Inc., 2010. On September 23, 2010, a PDF version of this document was made available for download.

External links

  • Xen and the Art of Virtualization, published by the ACM in 2003 by a consortium of writers
  • Linux Virtualization Software
  • Zoppis, Bruno
  • An Introduction to Virtualization
  • An Introduction to Virtualization, by Amit Singh
  • An Introduction to Virtualization, by Amit Singh (27 August 2007). “How to reconcile GPL and proprietary embedded code with the help of a hypervisor.” Linux gizmos are devices that run Linux. On December 24, 2013, the original version of this article was archived.


Virtualization is a technology that enables for more effective exploitation of actual computer hardware. It is the cornerstone of cloud computing and is used to create virtual machines on virtual computers.

What is virtualization?

Virtualization is the use of software to create an abstraction layer over computer hardware that allows the hardware elements of a single computer—processors, memory, storage, and other components—to be divided into multiple virtual computers, also known as virtual machines. Virtualization is a technique for dividing a single computer into multiple virtual computers, also known as virtual machines (VMs). Each virtual machine (VM) runs its own operating system (OS) and operates as if it were a standalone computer, despite the fact that it is only running on a piece of the actual underlying computer hardware.

Virtualization is now considered a mainstream technique in organizational information technology design.

When cloud providers use virtualization, they can continue to use their existing physical computer hardware to serve their customers; when cloud customers use virtualization, they can purchase only the computing resources they require at the time of need and scale those resources cost-effectively as their workloads grow.

See our video “Virtualization Explained” (5:20) for a more in-depth explanation of how virtualization works:

Benefits of virtualization

Virtualization provides various advantages to data center owners and service providers, including the following:

  • Before virtualization, each application server had its own dedicated physical CPU, which meant that IT workers would have to purchase and setup a new server for each program they wished to run. (For reasons of dependability, IT desired that only one application and one operating system (OS) be installed on each machine.) Each physical server would almost certainly be underutilized. Server virtualization, on the other hand, allows you to run several applications—each on its own virtual machine with its own operating system—on a single physical computer (usually an x86 server) without losing stability. Using this method, the computational capability of the actual hardware is utilized to the greatest extent possible. Management is made simpler: The usage of software-defined virtual machines (VMs) in place of real computers makes it easier to utilize and administer policies that are written in software. This enables you to develop procedures for IT service management that are automated. Examples include software templates that allow administrators to design groupings of virtual machines and applications as services and then deploy and configure those services automatically using automated deployment and configuration tools. This implies that they may install such services regularly and consistently without having to go through a time-consuming and tedious process. as well as manual setup that is prone to mistake Administrators can use virtualization security rules to impose certain security configurations on virtual machines based on the role that the virtual machine is assigned. Even more resource-efficient policies may be implemented by retiring idle virtual machines in order to save on storage space and processing power. Downtime should be kept to a bare minimum: Operating system and application failures can generate downtime and impede user productivity. If an issue occurs, administrators can operate numerous redundant virtual machines side by side and switch between them when the problem occurs. Having numerous redundant physical servers is more expensive than having one primary server. Provisioning hardware more quickly: Purchasing, installing, and configuring hardware for each application takes a significant amount of time. Providing that the necessary hardware is already in place, deploying virtual machines to execute all of your apps is substantially faster than using traditional methods. Furthermore, you may automate it with management tools and incorporate it into current procedures.
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See “5 Benefits of Virtualization” for a more in-depth look at the possible benefits of virtualization.


Virtualization solutions for specialized data center operations or end-user-focused, desktop virtualization situations are available from a number of vendors. VMware, which specializes in server, desktop, network, and storage virtualization; Citrix, which specializes in application virtualization but also offers server virtualization and virtual desktop solutions; and Microsoft, whose Hyper-V virtualization solution is included with Windows and focuses on virtual versions of server and desktop computers; are some of the more well-known virtualization vendors.

Virtual machines (VMs)

Virtual machines (VMs) are virtual environments that, in software form, imitate the operation of a real computer. A virtual machine’s configuration, storage for the virtual hard drive, and certain snapshots of the VM, which record the state of the VM at a specific moment in time, are often included within multiple files. See “What is a Virtual Machine?” for a comprehensive overview of virtual machines.


A hypervisor is the software layer that manages virtual machines (VMs). It acts as a bridge between the virtual machine and the underlying physical hardware, ensuring that each has access to the physical resources required to run its applications properly. Moreover, it assures that the virtual machines do not interact with one another by interfering with each other’s memory space or compute cycles. Hypervisors are classified into two categories:

  • Type 1 hypervisors, sometimes known as “bare-metal” hypervisors, interface directly with the underlying physical resources, completely replacing the traditional operating system. They are most frequently seen in virtual server environments. Type 2 hypervisors run as a separate program on top of an existing operating system. They are most typically used on endpoint devices to run alternative operating systems, but they have a significant performance overhead since they must rely on the host operating system to access and coordinate the underlying hardware resources.

” Hypervisors: A Complete Guide ” gives a complete overview of all there is to know about hypervisors in one convenient location.

Types of virtualization

However, while server virtualization has been the focus of our discussion so far, there are many other aspects of information technology infrastructure that may be virtualized and provide considerable benefits to IT managers (in particular) and the company as a whole. Virtualization may be classified into the following kinds, which we’ll discuss in this section:

  • Desktop virtualization, network virtualization, storage virtualization, data virtualization, application virtualization, data center virtualization, CPU virtualization, GPU virtualization, Linux virtualization, cloud virtualization are all terms that are used to describe virtualization in various contexts.

Desktop virtualization

Desktop virtualization allows you to run numerous desktop operating systems on the same computer, each in its own virtual machine (VM). Desktop virtualization may be divided into two categories:

  • Virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) is a technology that allows numerous desktops to be operated in virtual machines (VMs) on a central server and streamed to users that log in using thin client devices. In this approach, virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) enables an organization to give its users with access to a range of operating systems from any device, without the need to install operating systems on any device. For a more in-depth explanation, see to “What is Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI)?” Desktop virtualization, also known as local desktop virtualization, is the installation of a hypervisor on a local computer that allows the user to run one or more additional operating systems on that computer and switch from one operating system to another as needed without changing anything about the primary operating system.

Please check “Desktop as a Service (DaaS)” for further information on virtual desktops.

Network virtualization

It is possible to establish a “view” of the network using software, which an administrator may then access from a single terminal to control the whole network. Connections, switches, routers, and other hardware pieces and functions are abstracted away and placed in software operating on a hypervisor, where they may be accessed and used by other applications. It is possible for a network administrator to alter and control these parts without having to touch the underlying physical components, which significantly simplifies network administration.

SDN and NFV are both examples of software-defined networking.

Storage virtualization

Storage virtualization allows all of the storage devices on a network — whether they’re placed on individual servers or on freestanding storage units — to be accessed and controlled as if they were a single storage device on a single network. Storage virtualization, in particular, consolidates all blocks of storage into a single common pool from which they may be given to any VM on the network as and when they are required. Storage virtualization simplifies the process of provisioning storage for virtual machines (VMs) and makes the most of all accessible storage on the network.

Data virtualization

Modern companies store data from various applications, in different file formats, in many places, ranging from the cloud to on-premise hardware and software systems, and they do it in a variety of locations. Data virtualization allows any program to access all of that data, regardless of where it came from, what format it was in, or where it was stored. In the case of data virtualization, a software layer is created between the applications that access the data and the systems that store it. The layer transforms a data request or query from an application into the appropriate format and delivers results that can span several systems.

Application virtualization

Application virtualization allows users to execute application software without having to install it on their operating system. This varies from total desktop virtualization (as discussed above) in that just the program is run in a virtual environment, but the operating system on the end user’s device continues to function normally. Application virtualization may be divided into three categories:

  • Local application virtualization (also known as LOAV): The whole program is executed on the endpoint device, but it does so in a runtime environment rather than on the device’s actual hardware. Streaming of applications: In this case, the program is housed on a server, which periodically transfers tiny components of the software to be executed on the end user’s device. Application virtualization on a server-based platform The program is totally housed on a server, with just the user interface being sent to the client device over the network.

Data center virtualization

Remote access to virtualized applications on a local computer: Even though the complete program is executed on the endpoint device, it does so in a runtime environment rather than on the native hardware. Streaming of an application In this case, the program is housed on a server, which periodically transfers tiny components of the software to be executed on the end user’s device. Virtualization of server-based applications Only the user interface of the program is sent to the client device because the application is totally operated on a server.

CPU virtualization

In computing, CPU virtualization (central processing unit virtualization) is the foundational technology that enables the creation of hypervisors, virtual machines, and operating systems. It enables a single CPU to be partitioned into numerous virtual CPUs, each of which may be used by a different virtual machine. At initially, CPU virtualization was solely software-defined, but today’s CPUs feature expanded instruction sets that allow CPU virtualization, which enhances the performance of virtual machines (VMs) significantly.

GPU virtualization

It is a particular multi-core processor that boosts overall computer speed by taking over the processing of visual or mathematical tasks that would otherwise be performed by a regular processor.

Using GPU virtualization, several virtual machines (VMs) may share the processing capacity of a single graphics processing unit (GPU). This allows for quicker video playback, artificial intelligence (AI), and other graphic- or math-intensive applications.

  • Pass-through GPUs make the full GPU available to a single guest OS
  • However, this is not always the case. Shared virtual GPUs (vGPUs) distribute actual GPU cores across a number of virtual GPUs (vGPUs) for usage by server-based virtual machines (VMs).

Linux virtualization

Linux features its own hypervisor, known as the kernel-based virtual machine (KVM), which supports Intel and AMD’s virtualization processor extensions, allowing you to construct x86-based virtual machines (VMs) from within a Linux host operating system. Linux is very adaptable due to the fact that it is an open source operating system. You may construct virtual machines (VMs) that run customized versions of Linux for specialized workloads, as well as security-hardened versions for more sensitive applications.

Cloud virtualization

As previously stated, virtualization is essential to the cloud computing concept. Cloud computing companies can provide a variety of services to clients by virtualizing servers, storage, and other physical data center resources. These services include, but are not limited to:

  • It stands for Infrastructure as a Service, which means that you may rent virtualized server, storage, and network resources that you can customize according to your needs. Platform as a service (PaaS): Virtualized development tools, databases, and other cloud-based services that you may use to create your own cloud-based apps and solutions
  • PaaS is an abbreviation for Platform as a Service (PaaS). Software as a service (SaaS) is a type of cloud-based software program that you may access from anywhere. SaaS is the cloud-based service that is the most decoupled from the underlying hardware.

More information on these cloud service types can be found in our guide: “IaaS vs. PaaS vs. SaaS,” which can be found here.

Virtualization vs. containerization

Server virtualization is the process of reproducing a full computer in hardware, which then runs the operating system as a whole. The operating system executes a single program. Although this is more efficient than not using virtualization at all, it still replicates useless code and services for each program that you wish to run on your computer. Containers use a different method to storing goods. They share the same core operating system kernel, and are only responsible for running the program and the resources it requires, such as software libraries and environment variables.

” Containers: A Complete Guide ” and ” Containerization: A Complete Guide ” are two excellent resources for learning more about containers and containerization.

Sai Vennam, in the following video, explains out the fundamentals of containerization and how it relates to virtualization through virtual machines (VMs) (8:09):


VMware is a company that develops virtualization software. When VMware first launched, it focused only on server virtualization, with its ESX (now ESXi) hypervisor being one of the first commercially successful virtualization technologies on the market. VMware now provides solutions for network virtualization, storage virtualization, and desktop virtualization, among other things. ” VMware: A Complete Guide” is a comprehensive resource for learning everything about VMware.


Virtualization has several advantages in terms of security. For example, infected virtual machines (VMs) can be rolled back to a period in time (referred to as a snapshot) when the VM was uninfected and stable; they can also be removed and recreated more readily than previously. You won’t always be able to disinfect a non-virtualized operating system since malware is typically firmly embedded into the operating system’s essential components, allowing it to survive system rollbacks. Additionally, virtualization introduces certain security issues.

In addition, because hypervisors might allow virtual machines to communicate with one another without interacting with the actual network, it can be difficult to monitor their traffic and, as a result, to detect suspicious activities.

The industry provides a variety of virtualization security tools that can scan and patch virtual machines (VMs) for malware, encrypt whole virtual machine virtual drives, and restrict and audit access to virtual machines.

Virtualization and IBM

IBM Cloudprovides a comprehensive range of cloud-based virtualization solutions, ranging from public cloud services to private and hybrid cloud options. IBM Cloud is a division of IBM Corporation. Create and manage virtual infrastructure, as well as benefit from a variety of services ranging from cloud-based artificial intelligence to VMware workload transfer, all provided by the IBM Cloud for VMware Solutions. Sign up for an IBM Cloud account right away.

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